Urban Resilience and Energy

On my 30-minute commute to my office, I often think about energy. The regrettable drive drags on, during which I listen to podcasts about permaculture and the many energy-related stores on the morning news. The cognitive dissonance is thought provoking. One day, while passing the some of the many stip malls that pock the surface of Florida, I thought, What are we going to do with all this concrete? My internal question was quite literal, as if I were planning for a next week when cheap abundant energy is no longer available. It surprised me.

I participated in a recently held webinar by the International Urban Food Network (IUFN 2015) called “Toward a Climate Resilient Urban Food Systems.” The speakers covered the various aspects about the typical urban built environment which are not resilient in the face of flooding, winds, storms, and heatwaves caused by climate change. One of the speakers, Marielle Dubbeling, was from the Resource Centres for Urban Agriculture & Food Security, and she shared case studies from various cities around the world that have implemented urban agriculture and forestry as mitigation responses to the effects of extreme weather caused by climate change (Dubbeling 2014). I imagined permaculture-inspired ponds, berms, swales, green spaces, and rain gardens throughout cities that could soak up floods, filter water, act as windbreaks, and reduce urban heat island effects. Howard Odum (1973, 225) discusses the need to utilize ecosystem services instead of mimic them with technological gadgets because this results in a waste of energy. 

Odum’s statement that “growth promoting policies and structures become an energy liability because their high energy cost is no longer accelerating energy yields,” exemplifies the vision of a future in which concrete becomes a burden on society. We have paved too much of our urban areas due to the main transportation method in the United States being the automobile. Without the ability to drive everywhere on a whim when cheap energy in the form of gasoline is not available, there is no other purpose for the roads that dominate the urban landscape. We are left with non-arable, toxic, heat-collecting, flood-vulnerable tarmac. Quite the liability indeed.

In contrast, creative descent from fossil fuels would prescribe the relocalization of our lifestyles and deem car transportation obsolete. We should convert the many roadways into bike paths, walking paths, energy-efficient mass transit, and arable or wild lands to better adapt to the weather that anthropogenic climate change has inevitably caused. As Odum (1973, 227) concludes, “Use available energies for cultural conversion to steady state.” Odum’s advice is forethinking. Dave Jacke (2005) warns that the social and economic sides of permaculture are the hardest to address and change in our society. How can we promote a culture that is not causing extreme harm to the planet (Jensen and McBay 2009)? We can start by implementing school and community gardens to teach a love of growing food, bring food security, increase green space in urban environments starving for it, and increase overall resilience. 

Fortunately, I observe people naturally responding to green spaces in cities. They want to see trees and other natural features. The fact that urban agriculture projects would increase resilience to climate change, provide food to urban residents, reduce transport costs and infrastructure, improve urban aesthetics, provide shade to cool the city and reduce the need for cooling, accomplish other ecosystem services, and other means to decrease fossil fuel energy consumption in cities makes taking steps to implement green space in the urban environment a very strong case.  

References:
Dubbeling, Marielle. 2014. “Integrating urban and peri-urban agriculture and forestry (UPAF) in city climate change strategies.” RUAF Foundation, June. http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Final%20report%20Urban%20agriculture%20and%20City%20Climate%20Change%20strategies%20programme%20June%2012014.pdf.

IUFN. 2015. “International Urban Food Network. Accessed November 12. http://www.iufn.org/en/.

Jacke, Dave. 2005. Edible Forest Gardens: Vision and Theory Volume I. White River Junction: Chelsea Green.

Jensen, Derrick and Aric McBay. 2009. What We Leave Behind. New York: Seven Stories Press.

Odum, Howard T. 1973. “Energy, ecology, and economy.” Ambio Vol. 2, No. 6, Energy in Society: A Special Issue: 220-227.

Cypress Dome Swamps and Pine Flatwoods of Florida!

The following post was originally written for my class at Green Mountain College, Bioregional Theory and the Foodshed, in December 2014.

“Where land and water intermingle, something magical occurs: a landscape both luxuriant and alluring. Gleaming lily-covered ponds are nearly everywhere, dotted with white egret silently stalking small fish. Along winding, cypress-lined rivers, stately blue herons wade amid aquatic gardens profuse with scalloped pennywarts and blue-flowered pickerelweeds. In the dark recesses of remote swamps, canary-yellow prothonotary warblers build their nests in the hollows of cypress and tupelo trees whose strangely swollen trunks rise from midnight-black water.”           – Ron Larson, Swamp Song

The Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion is a tale of antilogies: wetlands alongside drylands, muck juxtaposing sand, fire compliments water, thunderstorms trample drought. Extremes coexist in the forms of cypress swamps and pine flatwoods ecosystems, which sometimes neighbor each other in a tacit solidarity. Such is the case at Corkscrew Swamp (see cover photograph), where pine flatwoods give way to marshy grass and finally dip into a large cypress dome.

The Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion hugs the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to the west and is bordered by the Lake Wales Ridge to the east and is contained within the plant hardiness zones 9b to 10a. (See figure 1.)

FIGURE 1: Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion, Adapted from Earth Observatory. 2000.

FIGURE 1: Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion, Adapted from Earth Observatory. 2000.

The US Forest Service creates designations for ecoregions from a geographically large scale to very small zones. From broad to specific, The Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion falls within the USFS-designated Eastern Humid Temperate Domain, Subtropical Division, and Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Province (1995). Within Florida, USFS would specify down to the Southern Coastal Plain and the Southwestern Florida Flatwoods. (See figure 2, below.)fig 2 3While these ecoregions are helpful indicators about where this bioregion exists, a more specific designation should be made, hence the identification of “Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion.” This bioregion has climatic and biotic differences that make it unique from the closest Ecoregion designation. Consider the plant hardiness zones map as a prime example. (See figure 3.) This bioregion’s boundaries stay within the 9b to 10a zones, unlike the Ecoregions map which encompasses zones 8b through 10b. Personal experience underscores the definite change when traveling from the plant hardiness zones 9a to 9b: the plant life becomes very tropical due to lack of frequent frosts in the wintertime. The spirit of the mango resides in these more tropical hardiness zones, a member of the community the bioregion could not exist without.

The designation made by the EPA’s Lake Regions map, the Southwestern Flatlands, (see figure 4) is more accurate than the Ecoregions map when considering the actual experience of the biodiversity in this bioregion, but it does not include Lake Region Immokalee Rise which is also within plant hardiness zone 10a and of which the biota are true to this bioregion. Therefore, both the Lake Regions Southwestern Flatlands and Immokalee Rise are included in the Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatlands bioregion. Figure 5 depicts the overlap of the 10a plant hardiness zone with the Southwestern Flatlands and Immokalee Rise Lake Regions, a helpful determinate for this bioregion.fig 4 5This changing and dynamic landscape gives rise to many interesting characteristics and species. Cypress “domes,” the term referring to their shape from afar, are biologically rich lowlands due to the abundant water flowing through their tributary and creek systems; other wet ecosystems include the wide freshwater marshes and wet prairies. In addition to cypress domes, which are typically swampy year-round, ephemeral, or seasonal, wet areas abound. In ephemeral swamps, hardwood tree stands, bayheads (boggy areas with mucky soil) (Florida Department of Environmental Protection 2011), and grassy marshes grow (Beever and Thomas 2006, 1). Ephemeral ponds are a critical home to wildlife in Florida, especially wading birds like herons and egrets. Wetlands in this bioregion are also home to manatee, American alligator, little blue heron, Audubon’s crested caracara, roseate spoonbill, snowy egret, river otter, and many others (Beever and Thomas 2006, 7, 24). (See photos 1 and 2.)

PHOTO 1: Cypress Tree at Fish Eating Creek Palmdale, Florida. Reproduced from Kim Seng. 2012.

PHOTO 1: Cypress Tree at Fish Eating Creek Palmdale, Florida. Reproduced from Kim Seng. 2012.

PHOTO 2: Alligator submerged, cooling in mud and water lettuce; Corkscrew Swamp National Park, Florida. Reproduced from Barbara Magnuson. 2014.

PHOTO 2: Alligator submerged, cooling in mud and water lettuce; Corkscrew Swamp National Park, Florida. Reproduced from Barbara Magnuson. 2014.

In contrast, the pine and scrub oak flatwoods, which are higher in elevation, are where various types of pine trees, like slash and longleaf, and saw palmetto dominate the landscape. (See photo 3.) The understory of this ecosystem, saw palmetto, produces a berry which is a food staple for the Florida black bear among other wildlife (Beever and Thomas 2006, 8). The threatened pine flatwoods are also home to the endangered Florida panther, the fox squirrel, bald eagle, gopher tortoise, Florida long-tailed weasel, bobcat, white-tailed deer, red-cockaded woodpecker, and eastern indigo snake among many others (Beever and Thomas 2006, 10-12). Though host to a variety of wildlife, these regions are typically dry with sandy soil that is low in organic matter. Dry grassy prairies, also known as tropical savannas, stretch across the landscape or hide among the pines. However, even the flatlands have a summer wet season, June to September (Beever and Thomas 2006, 1). The wet season in this bioregion entails dramatic tropical thunderstorms that whip the tall thin pines and flood the landscape with water. The characteristic lightning storms makes this area the lightning capital of North America at ninety-one thunder days per year, occasionally inciting forest fires (Christian et al. 2003). The flatwoods ecosystem is highly adapted and dependent on regular fire for its lifecycle functions (Beever and Thomas 2006, 8). Every two to four years, the fires rage through the landscape, preventing shrubs and hardwood sprouts from growing, ensuring a “highly diverse herb-dominated ground flora” as the forest floor recovers (Martin and Kirkman 2009). In fact, there is evidence to suggest that native people routinely set fires in the region since about 12,000 years ago! (See photo 4) (Myers and Peroni 1983).photo 3 - 4Though it has not been determined whether they were one of the fire-setting tribes, the Tocobaga Native Americans inhabited the Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion near the Tampa Bay area. (See figure 6.) They would have had an interest in maintaining the flatwoods, though, because they used the palm thatch for roofing material as well as foraging local edibles (Ricky 1998, 242, 258). Another influential tribe of the Everglades is the Miccosukee, who were forced south from the Carolinas by white expansion in the 1800s. The Miccosukee utilized Florida native plants, and they also used palmetto leaves for thatched roofs and created dugout canoes from cypress timbers (Ricky 1998, 178-179).

FIGURE 6: Distribution of Southeast American Indian cultures. Adapted from Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998.

FIGURE 6: Distribution of Southeast American Indian cultures. Adapted from Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998.

The unique geology beneath the earth’s surface created the waterways and watersheds characteristic to this region. Ancient rock formations created the foundations on which other qualities of the bioregion depend. Geologically speaking, several features contribute to the basins and elevations shaping the region. Rising to the east is the Lake Wales Ridge, summiting with Sugarloaf Mountain at 308 feet above sea level (USGS 2014). The Ocala Platform (figure 7), a limestone formation, hugs the region to the north, and the Peace River Formation (figure 8) traverses the center of the bioregion (Tihansky and Knochenmus 2013). The Peace River Formation begins at the southern end of the Ocala Platform stretching south to the Okeechobee Basin. According to the USGS, the Peace River Formation is made up of interbedded sands, clays, and carbonates and is rich in phosphorus (2013).fig 7 8The Peace River Basin fills the center of this bioregion and contributes to many of the cypress swamps. (See figure 9.) The watershed covers 2,300 square miles, and the Peace River runs through the center of the basin, beginning in the Green Swamp Lake Region and emptying into Charlotte Harbor (Our Phosphate Risk 2008). Other water features of note include the Gulf of Mexico to the west, Charlotte Bay to the Southwest, and Caloosahatchee River to the south (See figure 10), framing the bioregion on three sides. These many lakes, rivers, and swamps create habitat for the cypress ecosystems. 
fig 9 10The Cypress Dome Swamp, Florida Pine Flatwoods bioregion’s unique qualities provide the only habitat in the world for much of its native wildlife (Beever and Thomas 2006). Unfortunately this beautiful land is at severe risk due to human actions. The root cause of the disappearance of this region is development. By 1970, only half of the historic flatwoods still remained, and far less exist today. People have over-harvested the saw palmetto berry for medicinal use, which is a part of the Florida black bear’s food supply (Beever and Thomas 2006, 8). Fecal coliform bacteria from agriculture, neighborhood septic system overflow, and spreading of biosolids on the landscape often contaminate this precious ecosystem. The phosphorus here has been mined for agricultural use in chemical fertilizers, which has caused “catastrophic” phosphate pollution in the Peace River (Froelich et al. 1985). Beever and Thomas predict that unless strict measures are made to protect the flatwoods, they will soon be totally decimated for use by humans alone: cities, suburbs, and food production (2006, 9-10).

We, as members of this bioregion, should do all we can to protect what is left of our natural ecosystem. Fragile biomes everywhere are being choked out by unwise development. If we wish to experience the delight of such creatures as the endangered ghost orchid (see photo 5 below), as well as recognize their prerogative to exist, we will engage in smart development to preserve the cypress domes and pine flatwoods and all their inhabitants for years to come (Wiley 2010).

PHOTO 5: Rare Ghost Orchid “Super Ghost” Blooms at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. Reproduced from Audubon Florida, Courtesy of Rod Wiley. 2010.

PHOTO 5: Rare Ghost Orchid “Super Ghost” Blooms at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. Reproduced from Audubon Florida, Courtesy of Rod Wiley. 2010.

References:

Beever, Jim and Thomas, Daryl. 2006. “Immokalee Rise/Pine Flatwoods Conceptual Ecological Model.” Evergladesplan.org. May 22. Accessed November 22, 2014. http://www.evergladesplan.org/pm/studies/study_docs/swfl/swffs_cems_immokalee.pdf.

Christian, Hugh J., Blakeslee Richard J., Boccippio, Dennis J., Boeck, William L., Buechler, Dennis E., Driscoll, Kevin T., Goodman, Steven J., Hall, John M., Koshak, William J., Mach, Douglas M. and Stewart, Michael F. 2003. “Global frequency and distribution of lightning as observed from space by the Optical Transient Detector.” Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Volume 108, Issue D1, pages ACL 4-1–ACL 4-15, 16. January 3. Accessed November 22, 2014. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2002JD002347/full.

Earth Observatory. Shaded Relief and Colored Height. 2000. Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model. Accessed November 22, 2014. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=4818.

Ecology.com. 2014. “Florida Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://geology.com/lakes-rivers-water/florida.shtml.

Encyclopedia Britannica.1998. “Distribution of Southeast American Indian cultures.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/667914/Southeast-Indian.

Estevez, Daunier. Corkscrew Swamp. 2014. Photograph. Accessed November 24, 2014. http://daunier.com/myportfolio/photography/panorama-photography/.

Firescience.gov. Burning Flatwoods. 2011. Photograph. Accessed November 19, 2014. http://www.firescience.gov/JFSP_funded_project_detail.cfm?jdbid=%24%26Z34T%20%20%20%0A.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 2011. “Wetland Communities  – Bayheads.” Last updated September 21. Accessed November 22, 2014. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/water/wetlands/delineation/wetcomm/bayhead.htm.

Froelich, P.N., Kaul, L.W., Byrd, J.T., Andreae, M.O., Roe, K.K. 1985. “Arsenic, barium, germanium, tin, dimethylsulfide and nutrient biogeochemistry in Charlotte Harbor, Florida, a phosphorus-enriched estuary.” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Volume 20, Issue 3, March, Pages 239–264. Accessed November 23, 2014. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272771485900411.

Larson, Ron. 1995. Swamp Song, A Natural History of Florida’s Swamps. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Magnuson, Barbara. Alligator [Alligator mississippiensis] submerged, cooling in mud and water lettuce;    Corkscrew Swamp National Park, Florida. Photograph. Copyright Barbara Magnuson / Larry Kimball. Accessed November 19, 2014. http://magnusonkimball.photoshelter.com/image/I0000JomgTlGXukU.

Martin, Katherine L., Kirkman, L. Katherine. 2009. “Management of ecological thresholds to re-establish disturbance-maintained herbaceous wetlands of the south-eastern USA.” Journal of Applied Ecology 46, 906–914.

Myers, Ronald L. and Peroni, Patricia A. 1983. “Approaches to Determining Aboriginal Fire Use and its Impact on Vegetation.” Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 217-218. Accessed November 19, 2014. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20166351?uid=3739600&uid=2134&uid=2486516203&uid=2&uid=70&uid=3&uid=2486516193&uid=3739256&uid=60&sid=21105246592083.

Noles1984. 2012. “Peace River Formation (Florida).” Last modified April 28. Accessed November 18, 2014. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peace_River_Formation_Florida_map.png.

Our Phosphate Risk. 2008. “Peace River Basin.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://www.thephosphaterisk.com/issues/peace-river-basin.

Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander. Pine Flatwoods. Photograph. Accessed November 19, 2014. http://drakehs.org/academics/seadisc/endangeredspecies/2010/Sophie%20and%20Rosie/references.html.

Ricky, Donald B. 1998. Encyclopedia of Florida Indians. St. Clair Shores: Somerset Publishers, Inc.

River City Grotto. 2014. “Karst Geology of Florida or…Where’d all them dang caves come from?” Last updated October 21. Accessed November 18, 2014. http://www.rivercitygrotto.com/geology.html.

Seng, Kim. 2012. Cypress Tree at Fish Eating Creek Palmdale, Florida. September 2. Photograph. Captain Kimo. Accessed November 19, 2014. http://captainkimo.com/cypress-tree-at-fishing-eating-creek-palmdale-florida/.

Tihansky, Ann B. and Knochenmus, Lari A. 2013. “USGS: Karst Features and Hydrogeology in West-central Florida — A Field Perspective.” Last modified January 3, 2013. Accessed November 18, 2014. http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/kigconference/abt_karstfeatures.htm.

USDA Agricultural Research Center. 2012. “USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://planthardiness.ars.usda.gov/PHZMWeb/#.

USDA Forest Service. 2014. “Chapter 21 Ecological Subregions of the United States.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://www.fs.fed.us/land/pubs/ecoregions/ch21.html#232D.

USDA Forest Service. 1995. “Description of the Ecoregions of the United States.” Accessed November 18, 2014. http://www.fs.fed.us/land/ecosysmgmt/index.html.

US EPA Western Ecology Division. 2012. “Lake Region Characteristics.” Last updated August 28. Accessed November 18, 2014. ftp://ftp.epa.gov/wed/ecoregions/fl/fl_lkreg_back.pdf.

USGS. 2013. “South Florida Information Access: Lithostratigraphic Units.” Last updated September 4. Accessed November 18, 2014. http://sofia.usgs.gov/publications/maps/florida_geology/units.html.

USGS. 2014. “Feature Detail Report for: Sugarloaf Mountain.” Last updated November 18. Accessed November 18, 2014. http://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=gnispq:3:0::NO::P3_FID:291784.

Wiley, Rod. Ghost Orchid Blooming in July 2010. 2010. Photograph. Audubon Florida News. Accessed November 23, 2014. http://audubonoffloridanews.org/?p=4607.

Kenyan Pastoralists Fighting Climate Change Through Food Forests

Photo: Robert Kibet/IPS

This is a fascinating article about reversing desertification in Kenya.

“[The] initiative to help the Samburu community plant the 18 species of indigenous fruit trees which are drought-resistant and rich in nutrients is also part of a major conservation effort in that the combination of ‘small-scale food security and conservation of indigenous trees. will also create a linkage between people and trees and they will protect them.'”

The world’s poor are suffering worst from the effects of climate change, such as in Africa and Pacific island nations. It seems this initiative is giving tools to people for furthering sustainability efforts that surpass where supposed “first world” nations are at.

Naomi Klein writes in her 2015 book This Changes Everything: Capitalism Versus the Climate, that countries which are being asked to preserve their natural resources, like rain forests that benefit the entire globe, deserve and are asking for remuneration from historically heavy carbon emitters like the UK and USA. Because rich countries are responsible for most of the carbon in the atmosphere causing climate change, I don’t see why we shouldn’t pay countries to preserve rain forests and other carbon sequestering natural resources.

Soil is Beautiful

Check out this beautiful and informative description of soil’s living web.

“If the soil is structurally and nutritionally conducive to a balanced, thriving soil fauna, bacteria tend to penetrate further; top soil becomes deeper and richer; plant growth becomes healthier and more luxuriant. When plants are abundant, wildlife is better nourished and more plentiful. If any external element disrupts this cosmos, the soil deteriorates and the living things that occupy the surface are adversely affected.”

Does Dirt Make You Happy?

I loved this Modern Farmer article about not only the piece of mind that getting into a natural environment can create, but one theory on how it does so – through interactions with microbes!

The psychological benefit of nature has been well documented… Just last year Rook published an article that explored those connections, concluding that the regulation of the immune system is indeed connected to the biodiversity of the natural environment. We benefit from being outdoors and exposed to things like soil and animals, because of the fact that we’re exposed to microorganisms.”